⚠️ This post was created when I was in high school and is no longer maintained.
1. Tree Properties
The depth of a node is the number of edges from the node to the tree’s root node. A root node will have a depth of 0.
The height of a node is the number of edges on the longest path from the node to a leaf. A leaf node will have a height of 0.
The height of a tree is the height of the root or the maximal depth. (For a complete binary tree, its height is Θ(lgn) )
A level or layer of a tree consists of all nodes of the same depth the number of levels is the height of the tree + 1
2. Tree normal traversal
There are several ways to implement a Tree. The most common one is using a linked data structure in which, in addition to a key and satellite data each node has left, right and parents pointers.
<1> InOrder Traversal Visit left sub-tree, then node itself, then right sub-tree
algorithm InOrderTravesal(n): if n != NIL then InOrderTraversal(n.left) -- only visit(print) itself when returning from the left sub-tree -- Visit(n) InOrderTraversal(n.right)
Output: 2, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8
<2> PostOrder Traversal Visit all successors and next the node itself
algorithm PostOrderTraversal(n): if m.left != NIL then PostOrderTraversal(n.left) if m.right != NIL then PostOrderTraversal(n.right) Visit(n) -- only visit(print) itself when returning from both sub-tree --
(Numbers represent traversal order)
<3> PreOrder Traversal First visit itself and next its successors
algorithm PreOrderTraversal(n): Visit(n) if m.left != NIL then PostOrderTraversal(n.left) if m.right != NIL then PostOrderTraversal(n.right)
- In my point of view, the embedded (inside) recursion functions are just entries that represent execution order. The code below an entry will not be executed until that entry was bounced back (returned).
.rightfor a leaf are both
NILso for inorder traversal, instead of
if n != NIL then ..., we could do
if n.left != NIL and n.right != NIL then ...for the sake of intuition.
- to better understand these traversal algorithms, bear in mind that the order of a given traversal method should be satisfied in every subtree.
4. Tree traversal augmentations (tricks)
There are some interesting implementations of traversing a tree structure I’d like to share:
- Non-recursive preorder traversal:
Algorithm NonRecurPreOrder(startNode): S := new Stack Push(S, startNode) While not S.isEmpty() do node := Pop(S) While node != NIL do: Visit(node) Push(S, node.right) node := node.left
- Non-recursuve inorder traversal:
Algorithm NonRecurInOrder(startNode): if startNode == NIL then return S := new Stack Push(S, startNode) node := startNode While not S.isEmpty() do While node.left != NIL do node := node.left Push(S, node) node := Pop(S) Visit(node) -- the most beatiful logic is here -- if node.right != NIL then node := node.right Push(S, node)
5. InOrder Traversal Time Complexcity
\(T(n) = Θ(n)\) Proof:
6. Today’s special
###Reserve singly linked-list non-recursively in Θ(n)
Algorithm ReserveSLL(L): if L.head == NIL then return prevPtr := L.head prevPtr.next := NIL --> After revserving, L.head will becomes the new tail whose next should be NIL currPtr := L.head.next --> starts from the second node (head.next) nextPtr := NIL While currPtr != NIL do nextPtr := currPtr.next currPtr.next := prePtr prevPtr := currPtr currPtr := nextPtr L.head := prevPtr --> Don't forget to set the head in the end